Environmental Pollution essay in English

By the end of this lesson, you will be able to

(a) define environmental pollution.

(b) make a list of environmental pollution components.

(c) identify the causes of environmental pollution.

(d) describe the adverse effects of pollution.

(e) design a model to reduce the environmental pollution.

Environmental Pollution Problems

Environment means the surroundings of us. And pollution means any unexpected harmful change. So environmental pollution means any undesirable change in the elements of environment that affects natural life. Environment plays a vital role in our day to day life. It influences our health, habits, manners, behaviours etc. A pollution free environment is a natural right of every living being. But unfortunately, the pure environment is fading rapidly from the earth mainly for man-made reasons.

There are many types of pollution such as: air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, sound pollution, littering etc. All these pollutions have their respective causes. The purpose of all our actions is to bring comfort in our life, make it easier and faster. But ironically, the way we are doing it is not always right. A list of environmental pollutions is given below:

  • air pollution
  • water pollution
  • soil pollution
  • light pollution
  • rain pollution
  • noise pollution
  • littering

Air Pollution

Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) etc gases are responsible for air pollution. Factories, industries, brick kilns, vehicles, cigarettes etc work as pollutants by emitting these gases. Deforestation also increases greenhouse gases. Then There's a huge amount of trash and dust which pollute the air. Natural pollutions of air are rare. Volcanic eruptions, forest fires, wind erosion etc are caused naturally.

Water Pollution

Most of the causes of water pollution are man-made. Industrial waste, agricultural waste, domestic waste and sewage etc generally cause it. The wastes generated from industries and factories are drained into rivers. The pesticides and fertilizers get mixed with water. Water vehicles and marine accidents also pollute the water. Bathing domestic animals, washing clothes and dishes in rivers and unsafe latrines and drains connected to river also cause water pollution. Natural disasters such as flood, river erosion, tsunami are harmful for water and finally it results environmental pollution problems.

Soil Contamination

There are several pollutants of soil. We use plastic, aluminium, glass, polythene bags etc which are either indestructible or take a long time to be disintegrated. Pesticides, fertilizers and industrial wastes also pollute soil. Soil is naturally polluted by disasters such as soil erosion, floods etc.

Light Pollution

Light pollution is the appearence of artificial extra light mainly used in cities and urban areas in night environment. The stars in the night sky give light to nature. But the light pollution, in fact, directly competes with starlight. This is the age of indusdtrial civilization that demands extremely high lighting system than the natural light. Light pollution, in fact, mainly occurs in urban areas. There is a lot of sources of light pollution. The main sources of light pollution are given below:

  • interior and exterior lightening system of some buildings and shopping malls
  • severe level lightening in advertising
  • using extra lighting in car parking areas and parking lots
  • road light and streetlights
  • brightening and shining sport venues
  • offices and industrial areas lightening
  • extra lightening as decoration in observing several memorable days and festival days

Light pollution is also familiar with photo pollution. It is happened in doing unnecessary and unwanted use of artificial extra light. Any sort of light pollution must have negative impact on our ecosystems directly and indirectly. And it finally results adverse health effects.

Rain Pollution

Rain pollution is mainly caused by a sort of rain mixed with acidic components. This pollution is, in fact, originated by acids produced in reacting water molecules with excessive release of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. When it rains, it comes with some acidic elements. This type of rain polluted with acids is well known to acid rain. Therefore, acid rain is a type of rain contains acidic components. In this way, the rain pollution is caused by some acidic factors. The excessive amount of sulfur dioxide plays vital role to produce acidification that finally leads to acid rain. Nitrogen oxide and sulfer dioxide can be produced naturally. Lighting strikes in the sky, for example, produces nitrogen oxide. On the other hand, volcanic eruptions produces sulfer dioxide. In this way, some acidic componets are automatically added to the atmosphere and ultimately it pollutes rain. Rain pollution has an adverse health effects for human beings and animals. The soil is getting barren day by day due to rain pollution.

Sound Pollution

Sound pollution occurs when the vibration of sound crosses our tolerance limit. According to The United Nations the tolerable limit of sound is 45 decibel . It is mainly harmful for living beings. It occurs because of harsh, loud and disturbing noise with no tune. Construction works, vehicle horns, use of loudspeakers, aero planes and machines cause sound pollution. The natural source of sound pollution is thunderbolt. Sound pollution is also well-known as noise pollution.


People carelessly drop their wastes here and there which results in pollution. Illegal dumping is one of the biggest reasons of it. Even the educated people are not much careful about it. The main reason behind littering is actually lack of awareness.


It turns out that almost every machine has bad aftereffects. People now overuse machines, waste energies and pollute the environment not knowing the consequences. Making the earth healthy and safe is much more important than making it fancy but frail. We are not giving environment the value it deserves and needs right now. We should be well aware of its consequences in every way possible.

We would better try not to cause pollution than to find solutions of environmental pollution problems. Yet, it will be easy for us to prevent environment pollution once we try to understand the reasons behind it. The three main elements of the environment are air, water and soil which are the most polluted. There are a lot of reasons behind each of the pollutions.

Last revised: 16/06/2020